Tropical Waters and Unique Characteristics: Indian Freshwater Systems

Abstract

India’s riverine conditions are shaped by the many rivers and lakes that run through the country’s colossal landscape and affect its hydrological dynamics. Himalayan and Peninsular rivers are the two main groups of rivers based on their origin. Himalayan rivers, like the Ganga, Yamuna, and the Indus, are primarily perennial. They get their water from snow and rain in the mountains. The Western Ghats are the main water split in Peninsular India. Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri are some rivers that flow eastward and drain into the Bay of Bengal, where they make deltas. The only long rivers that run west and make estuaries are the Narmada and the Tapi.

Most of India’s freshwater lakes are in the Himalayas and were formed by glaciers digging out areas filled with snowmelt. On the other hand, Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir is different because it was created by tectonic action. It is also the country’s largest freshwater lake. Dal Lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak, and Barapani are other beautiful freshwater lakes.

India’s big rivers are essential to the country’s ecosystem because they bring resources to farms, factories, and towns. Seasonal changes affect the flow of these rivers. For example, summer rains cause changes in water levels and flow rates. From June to September, the summer monsoon brings heavy rain that raises water levels and can sometimes cause floods. On the other hand, water levels drop in the winter. With their rich biodiversity, perennial rivers help keep marshes and floodplains alive, which are essential homes for many plant and animal species.

Still, things that people do, like polluting factories, cutting down trees, and building dams, pose major threats to the health of India’s water systems. We need to focus on long-term water management, conservation, and waste control to protect the strength and balance of these rivers’ ecosystems. They are important to India’s economy, society, and climate. This study emphasises the unique features of Indian rivers, which are very important for making policies that work in India. Understanding these features is vital for making sediment management rules for systems like this in countries along the Indian Ocean Rim (IOR).

1280 853 Maritime Research Center

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