Collisions in Inland waterways represent the biggest threat to inland water transportation. Its occurrence is very infrequent but has terrible consequences that make its avoidance a very imperative factor. This work aims to identify all the techniques that have been developed so far, which enable us to derive collision avoidance systems for Inland Waterways in Hooghly River based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data.
This research paper gives a risk assessment model for ship-to-ship collision and ship to shore. Much of the research that has taken place is basically for the vessel-to-vessel collision in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) and other oceans. This research paper further notes that the Collision Risk Index (CRI) plays a significant role in assessing ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore (river bank) collisions. This research note also proposes some methods for collision avoidance in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore (river bank).
- The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a transponder system designed to exchange information between ships and shore stations.
- The purpose of AIS is to help identify vessels, assist in trajectory tracking, simplify information exchange, and provide additional information to boost situational awareness.
- The AIS transponder consists of a Very High Frequency (VHF) radio unit, Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, computer, keyboard, and display unit.
- It was originally developed to be used as a collision avoidance system but later evolved to be useful in many more applications.
- Collision Risk Index (CRI) plays an important role in assessing ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore (river bank) collisions.
- AIS is also used for:
- Target point stabilization: it means setting the position of the target ship to determine the collision location, collision time, and collision capability of the event.
- Trajectory Tracking: It includes navigation tracking in which ships move according to the planned route.
- Collision avoidance processing: In this proposed plan of collision avoidance and warning alert for the crew by using Automatic Identification System (AIS), Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS), Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), Very High Frequency (VHF) equipment and warning signal.
- Data Quality: The AIS data quality is also a concern as elements of the system which require user input may suffer from data entry errors that can be unintentionally entered, and the system can experience failure on its own
- Attempt to improve the efficiency of CRI: Collision assessment is the basis of a crash detection and prevention system. It is important to avoid collisions to make timely decisions and warn the crew to take crucial actions to avoid collisions, thus this assessment is based on CRI (Collision Risk Index).
- Role of Aids to navigation: AIS information plays an important role in the field of aids to navigation. It has an important application to e-Navigation. Techniques must be developed for managing alarms and presenting warnings so that they achieve their intended purpose and do not result in distraction or confusion for the operator
- A small-size embedded system: A system that should be included with the collision risk assessment model can be installed onboard for navigation and equipped on small vessels and fishing vessels to avoid collision without an ARPA system.
“The aim of this work is to identify all the techniques that have been developed so far, which enable us to derive collision avoidance systems for Inland Waterways in Hooghly River based on Automatic Identification System data.”